Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Natural Kinds, philosophy: deviating from the biological definition, substances such as gold, water, etc. are referred to as natural kinds in the recent philosophical discussion. This goes back to the way in which these terms were introduced. (See H. Putnam, “The Meaning of 'Meaning”'. In Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2. Mind, Language and Reality, Cambridge.) Starting from a primary showing, the natural kind is defined as "something like this". The decisive point here is that there is no limit to future research. Virtually, any property that is initially attributed can prove to be a false assumption. See also introduction, definitions, terms.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Newen/Schrenk I 126f
Natural Kind/terms/Putnam/Newen/Schrenk: its reference can only be relatively stated to the environment and the prevailing natural conditions - N.B.: we can talk about natural species solely on the basis of examples. - It is not necessary that we have an idea about the defining characteristics. - E.g. Water: in earlier times, one talked just the same about it as today, without having a clue of H2O.
Definition Natural Kind/Putnam/Newen/Schrenk: a unified type of individual things, whereby this type is defined by properties in nature and not by epistemic or pragmatic criteria. - Implications: Putnam Thesis: meanings are not in the head - E.g. Twin earth.
Putnam III 145
Natural Kind/Putnam: E.g. star - artificial nature: their constellations - natural kind: limits are also arbitrary here.
I 38f
Natural Kind/Putnam: not analytic that tigers have stripes (not even a few) - not analytic that tigers are animals and lemons are fruits. - One who uses the word "aluminum", does not have to differentiate it from molybdenum. (> elms/beeches) - what determines the reference then? - The causal connection to the event of introduction includes belonging to a linguistic community. - Stereotypes: Temperature: strong stereotype - Electricity: weak stereotype.
I 135ff
Natural Kind/Putnam: E.g. natural substances, genera and physical variables - Putnam: early: defined by criteria. - later: through the world - What counts into that is determined by laws - These are not analytical definitions, all stereotypes can also be made true from other things.
II 138
Only the DNA decides what a lemon is.
I 139
What makes the composition of any importance, is its connection to the laws of behavior - with the introduction of the term they are commonly not known.
I 139
Natural Kind/Putnam: must have the same composition or obey the same laws - their names are not synonymous with markings: the research may result into something new.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Pu I
H. Putnam
Von einem Realistischen Standpunkt Frankfurt 1993

H. Putnam
Repräsentation und Realität Frankfurt 1999

H. Putnam
Für eine Erneuerung der Philosophie Stuttgart 1997

H. Putnam
Pragmatismus Eine offene Frage Frankfurt 1995

Pu V
H. Putnam
Vernunft, Wahrheit und Geschichte Frankfurt 1990

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-22