|Nature, philosophy: nature is usually defined as the part of reality that was not made or designed by humans. No properties can be attributed to nature. E.g. since contradiction is ultimately a language problem, one can say that nature cannot be contradictory. Not all forms of necessity can be attributed to nature, e.g. non-logical necessity and unnecessary existence. See also de re, de dicto, necessity de re, existence._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|McDowell I 122f
Nature/Kant/McDowell: according to him nature is the same as the realm of natural laws. He does not know the concept of second nature, although he very well knows the concept of education. But not as a background.
Second Nature/McDowell: thesis: there are rules of nature, regardless of whether one is susceptible to it or not. That is the consequence of correct education. "Naturalism of the second nature", "naturalized Platonism".
Vollmer II 48
Definition Nature/Kant: "The existence of things, as long as it is determined according to universal laws."
Nature/VollmerVsKant: that is unnecessarily narrow and begging: because the generality of the categories thus becomes an analytical consequence of this definition. (This is circular).
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Gadamer I 56
Nature/Kant/Gadamer: While Kant, who was taught by Rousseau, rejects the general conclusion of the refinement of the taste for beauty at all on the moral feeling, it is with the sense of the beauty of nature according to Kant a matter of its own. That nature is beautiful arouses an interest only in him who "has already previously well-founded his interest in the moral good". The interest in the beautiful in nature is therefore "morally related". By noticing the unintentional conformity of nature to our pleasures independent of all interest, thus a marvellous usefulness of nature for us, it points to us as the ultimate purpose of creation, our "moral destiny".(1) >Interest/Kant.
Precisely because we find in nature no ends in itself and yet beauty, i.e. a usefulness for the purpose of our well-being, nature thus gives us a "hint" that we really are the ultimate end, the final purpose of creation. The dissolution of the ancient thought of the cosmos, which gave man his place
Gadamer I 57
in the universal structure of the existing and every being its purpose of perfection, gives the world, which ceases to be beautiful as an order of absolute purposes, the new beauty of being useful for us. It becomes "nature" whose innocence lies in the fact that it knows nothing about man and his social vices. Nevertheless, it has something to tell us. With regard to the idea of an intelligible destiny of mankind, nature, as beautiful nature, acquires a language that leads it to us. >Art work/Kant.
1. I.Kant, Kritik der Urteilskraft, § 42_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
I Günter Schulte Kant Einführung (Campus) Frankfurt 1994
Externe Quellen. ZEIT-Artikel 11/02 (Ludger Heidbrink über Rawls)
Volker Gerhard "Die Frucht der Freiheit" Plädoyer für die Stammzellforschung ZEIT 27.11.03
Mind and World, Cambridge/MA 1996
Geist und Welt Frankfurt 2001
"Truth Conditions, Bivalence and Verificationism"
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell,
Was können wir wissen? Bd. I Die Natur der Erkenntnis. Beiträge zur Evolutionären Erkenntnistheorie Stuttgart 1988
Was können wir wissen? Bd II Die Erkenntnis der Natur. Beiträge zur modernen Naturphilosophie Stuttgart 1988
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977