|Norvig I 471
Frame theory/Minsky/AI research/Norvig/Russell: An influential paper by Marvin Minsky (1975)(1) presented a version of semantic networks called frames; a frame was a representation of an object or category, with attributes and relations to other objects or categories. The question of semantics arose quite acutely with respect to Quillian’s semantic networks (and those of others who followed his approach), with their ubiquitous and very vague “IS-A links” Woods’s (1975)(2) famous article “What’s In a Link?” drew the attention of AI researchers to the need for precise semantics in knowledge representation formalisms. Brachman (1979)(3) elaborated on this point and proposed solutions. Patrick Hayes’s (1979)(4) “The Logic of Frames” cut even deeper, claiming that “Most of ‘frames’ is just a new syntax for parts of first-order logic.”
1. Minsky, M. L. (1975). A framework for representing knowledge. InWinston, P. H. (Ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision, pp. 211–277.McGraw-Hill. Originally an MIT AI Laboratory memo; the 1975 version is abridged, but is the most widely cited.
2. Woods, W. A. (1975). What’s in a link? Foundations for semantic networks. In Bobrow, D. G. and
Collins, A. M. (Eds.), Representation and Understanding: Studies in Cognitive Science, pp. 35–82.
3. Brachman, R. J. (1979). On the epistemological status of semantic networks. In Findler, N. V.
(Ed.), Associative Networks: Representation and Use of Knowledge by Computers, pp. 3–50. Academic
4. Hayes, P. J. (1979). The logic of frames. In: Metzing, D. (Ed.), Frame Conceptions and Text Understanding, pp. 46–61. de Gruyter._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Stuart J. Russell
Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Upper Saddle River, NJ 2010