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Answer/Answer sets/AI research/Norvig/Russell: Answer set programming can be seen as an extension of negation as failure or as a refinement of circumscription;
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the underlying theory of stable model semantics was introduced by Gelfond and Lifschitz (1988)(1), and the leading answer set programming systems are DLV (Eiter et al., 1998)(2) and SMODELS (Niemel¨a et al., 2000)(3). The disk drive example comes from the SMODELS user manual (Syrj¨anen, 2000)(4). Lifschitz (2001(5)) discusses the use of answer set programming for planning. Brewka et al. (1997)(6) give a good overview of the various approaches to nonmonotonic logic. Clark (1978)(7) covers the negation-as-failure approach to logic programming and Clark completion. Van Emden and Kowalski (1976)(8) show that every Prolog program without negation has a unique minimal model. Recent years have seen renewed interest in applications of nonmonotonic logics to large-scale knowledge representation systems.
1. Gelfond, M. and Lifschitz, V. (1988). Compiling circumscriptive theories into logic programs. In Non-
Monotonic Reasoning: 2nd International Workshop Proceedings, pp. 74–99.
2. Eiter, T., Leone, N., Mateis, C., Pfeifer, G., and Scarcello, F. (1998). The KR system dlv: Progress report, comparisons and benchmarks. In KR-98, pp. 406–417.
3. Niemela, I., Simons, P., and Syrj¨anen, T. (2000). Smodels: A system for answer set programming.
In Proc. 8th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning.
4. Syrjanen, T. (2000). Lparse 1.0 user’s manual.saturn.tcs.hut.fi/Software/smodels.
5. Lifschitz, V. (2001). Answer set programming and plan generation. AIJ, 138(1–2), 39–54.
6. Brewka, G., Dix, J., and Konolige, K. (1997). Nononotonic Reasoning: An Overview. CSLI Publications.
7. Clark, K. L. (1978). Negation as failure. In Gallaire, H. and Minker, J. (Eds.), Logic and Data Bases, pp. 293–322. Plenum.
8. Van Emden, M. H. and Kowalski, R. (1976). The semantics of predicate logic as a programming language. JACM, 23(4), 733–742._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Stuart J. Russell
Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Upper Saddle River, NJ 2010