|Modal properties: are properties that are not attributed actually to an object, but are attributed in a possible world. A modal property is e.g. the property of being happier under other circumstances. The question is whether an object in the actual world must have a certain quality in order to have different properties in another world. See also modal logic, modal realism, possible worlds, centered worlds, contingency, possibility, necessity, properties, extensionality.|
Books on Amazon
Sum/mereology/Simons: assuming, we think of any portions of space-time as evidenced by any sums. - Then there is the question whether the relevant predicates are cumulative. - Definition cumulative predicate: if a sum exists, then the predicate which applies to it also applies to the whole, too. - (Whole unequal sum). - E.g. mass Termini can form any sums. - Non-cumulative: E.g. "is a human being" - The sum can occupy the same space-time as the corresponding individual, without being identical with it.
Sum/mereology: only exists because its parts exist. - ((S) So holistically an individual who exists only because other individuals exist.)
E.g. Tibbles/Wiggins: Thesis: the cat Tibbles is not identical with the sum Tib + Tail. Despite the permanent coincidence, because only Tibbles and not the sum has the modal property to continue to exist, if the tail gets lost.
Sum/identity conditions/Simons: sums have no autonomous identity conditions. - E.g. sum Tib + Tail is not identical with cat Tibbles, although it never loses its tail. - Modal property of the "could-get-lost" is critical - non-identity despite coincidence.
Sum/mereology/Simons: there are even sums across the categories (mixed-categorical sums): E.g. a body and the events that happened to him. - ((S) life story.)
Sum/mereology/Simons: here the structure does not matter.
Parts Oxford New York 1987