|Metaphor: a metaphor is the transmission of a linguistic expression into a different context than that in which it was expected. The expectation results from the frequency of previous uses in certain contexts. Through the transmission an expression, which is actually expected at this place in the speech, is replaced. The condition for replacement is a certain similarity between the characteristics of the old and the new expression required for understanding. The improbability of the appearance of the new expression is a condition for the rhetorical effect of the metaphor._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Metaphor/Searle: there is no algorithm to decide whether one is present - it is about non-representational mental skills - similarity between extensions is often not critical.
Metaphor/Searle: why do some work and others do not? - E.g. Sally is a block of ice, but not a prime number - solution: a block of ice is not insensitive. - There must be clear rules - metaphorical meaning is always an utterance condition. - SearleVsAll: literal meaning is not sure.
Truth conditions are clear.
Metaphor is no comparison - this is absurd: "with which block of ice do you compare him?" - Similarity: is nevertheless important for understanding - solution: it is only about Sally.
Vs interaction theory: there is no interaction between ice block and Sally: you can use someone else - meaning (like Davidson): in the metaphor no meaning changes its expression.
Negation: is metaphorical as well.
Metaphor/Searle: VsComparison Theory; there is indeed no resemblance asserted: E.g. "father of the country" - instead: you have to get behind the principles: what are the relevant similarities? Similarity itself is an empty predicate.
The basic principle is that only possible values of the metaphorically used expression can be the actual values that determine the possible properties of the object - metaphor needs no convention - (irony neither)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
J. R. Searle
Die Wiederentdeckung des Geistes Frankfurt 1996
Intentionalität Frankfurt 1991
J. R. Searle
Die Konstruktion der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit Hamburg 1997
Ausdruck und Bedeutung Frankfurt 1982
J. R. Searle
Sprechakte Frankfurt 1983