Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Metaphor: a metaphor is the transmission of a linguistic expression into a different context than that in which it was expected. The expectation results from the frequency of previous uses in certain contexts. Through the transmission an expression, which is actually expected at this place in the speech, is replaced. The condition for replacement is a certain similarity between the characteristics of the old and the new expression required for understanding. The improbability of the appearance of the new expression is a condition for the rhetorical effect of the metaphor.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
III 73
Metaphor/Goodman: "high note" is not a frozen metaphor - The ownership of properties is something factual. - No abridged comparison: everything is somehow similar to everything - one side of the comparison is unmetaphorical.
III 81
Max Black: In some cases, it is more illuminating to say that the metaphor produces the resemblance, than to say that it expresses a previously existing similarity.
III 82
The question why predicates apply metaphorically so and so and not in a different way, is almost equivalent to the question of why they are literally true. Actually this is not a real question. Why things are as they are, you can let this for the cosmologists.
III 82
The truth standards are pretty much the same, whether the scheme is transmitted or not.
IV 145
Metaphorical use: "Wilbur is a workhorse" prohibits the derivation: quadruped.
IV 146
It cannot be maintained that the metaphorical meaning is together with the literal meaning in the lexicon.
Because there is a potentially infinite number of applications of an expression.
A metaphor is not a "deviating" use. This view is understandable, even if it is wrong.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

N. Goodman
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984

N. Goodman
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988

N. Goodman
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997

N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-06-22