|Metaphor: a metaphor is the transmission of a linguistic expression into a different context than that in which it was expected. The expectation results from the frequency of previous uses in certain contexts. Through the transmission an expression, which is actually expected at this place in the speech, is replaced. The condition for replacement is a certain similarity between the characteristics of the old and the new expression required for understanding. The improbability of the appearance of the new expression is a condition for the rhetorical effect of the metaphor.|
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Metaphor/Goodman: "high note" is not a frozen metaphor - The ownership of properties is something factual. - No abridged comparison: everything is somehow similar to everything - one side of the comparison is unmetaphorical.
Max Black: In some cases, it is more illuminating to say that the metaphor produces the resemblance, than to say that it expresses a previously existing similarity.
The question why predicates apply metaphorically so and so and not in a different way, is almost equivalent to the question of why they are literally true. Actually this is not a real question. Why things are as they are, you can let this for the cosmologists.
The truth standards are pretty much the same, whether the scheme is transmitted or not.
Metaphorical use: "Wilbur is a workhorse" prohibits the derivation: quadruped.
It cannot be maintained that the metaphorical meaning is together with the literal meaning in the lexicon.
Because there is a potentially infinite number of applications of an expression.
A metaphor is not a "deviating" use. This view is understandable, even if it is wrong.
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989