|Mereology: deals with the relationship between parts and the whole and systematizes the relations that can exist between them. A characteristic of mereology versus set theory is the same ontological status of parts and whole in mereology as opposed to the unequal status of set and element in the set theory. Thus, paradoxes can be avoided, such as those known e.g. with the universal-class or universal-set. See also part-of-relation, Russellian paradox, transitivity, extensibility, sum.|
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Mereology/Simons: has operators instead of quantifiers (of PL) - Op take a Term N and form a new term N (a noun) - E.g "ov" overlapper of "pt" "part-of", "ex" outsider of-complex terms: E.g. instead PL: "binary product of () and ()" - easier "(Bpr (,))" - mereology: "Sm" "sum-of" "Pr": "Product-of" - plural Disignation/Mer: "Sum of the squares" instead PL: "Sum of x such that x is a square.
Mereological consistency: E.g. wine in a specific bottle stops, being this when poured - mereological variability: e.g. water in the river Salzach: "the same water with differences in its entirety". - Mass Termini: tend to consistency - because we are referring with terms of constancy to change - material things are mereological variable: they can gain and lose parts. - Pro: Aristotle, Locke - Vs: Leibniz, Hume, Reid, Chisholm.
Mereological consistency/succession/Chisholm: mereological variable objects are only logical structures made of mereological constant objects (entia per se) - the relation of succession depends on the type of object (e.g. table or cat).
Continuity/Simons: stricter than mereological consistency: the hair must exist continuously, so that the old hairstyle can be restored.
Mereology/Science/Practice/Simons: most of the objects of the natural sciences E.g. stars, planets, organisms, volcanoes are such that they are both: natural objects or whole and at the same time mereological variable - so middle course between essentialism and arbitrary or conventional parts.
Parts Oxford New York 1987