|To mean, intending, philosophy: the intention of a speaker to refer to an object, a property of an object or a situation by means of her words, gestures or actions in a manner which is recognizable for others. From what is meant together with the situation, listeners should be able to recognize the meaning of the characters used._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Meaning-that-principle/Chisholm: should be a reference to the meaning de dicto: accepted proposition or fact - e.g the vagabond means that Karl called the police (even if he did not know the name: ok - E.g. his school mates believed that the future pope would never become a clergyman).
(with respect to/(s): here: the speaker assigns meaning to a false object.)
Meaning (to mean) de re/Chisholm: of the greatest spy... problem: maybe there is none - two meanings: A) there is a thing, and the one who means identifies it as that to which he ascribes a property (broad conception) - B) The one who means identifies a particular thing as that of which he means something (narrow conception, still descriptive dependent).
Wide view: A: it is easy for the thing to be held for something (corresponds to indirect attribution).
Narrow view: B: it is difficult for the thing to be held for something by someone else.
Opinion de re/Chisholm: early, problem: cannot be explained de dicto, otherwise: e.g. because I know that the more valuable is the more valuable, I must choose both objects in the event of an error: 1. the one of which I believe it wrongly, 2. the right, because I believe of the more valuable ...- Chisholm late: solution: the thing is also identified as the thing of which the subject believes ...
Meaning (to mean)/Wittgenstein: no aiming at an object - no mental activity - paragraph § 689 - neither can the mental explain meaning and reference, nor vice versa. - A picture is as less related to an object from itself as a sentence - only the use makes it to do it._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The First Person. Theory of Reference and Intentionality, Minneapolis 1981
Die erste Person Frankfurt 1992
Philosophische Aufsäze zu Ehren von Roderick M. Ch, Marian David/Leopold Stubenberg, Amsterdam 1986
Roderick M. Chisholm
Theory of knowledge, Englewood Cliffs 1989
Erkenntnistheorie Graz 2004