|Logical constants: logical constants are also called logical particles or connectives, they are e.g. “and”; “or”; “if”; “then”; “not”. The expression constant is used, because the meaning of the logical links cannot change also in the translation into other languages, but always remains. For example, if one was to try to replace "and" with "or" in the case of a translation, mistakes would arise which could be determined, even if the vocabulary of the foreign language is not entirely known._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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logical constants/particles/logic/everyday language/Cohen: E.g. inference from "q" to "p>q" has no equivalent in natural language.
"And" asserts more than the truth of two subsentences - order important - E.g. Republic is proclaimed and the king died or vice versa - second truth should be part of the same kind.
logical constants/Meaning/If then/KH/Grice: the assertion of a conditional clause is truth-functional regarding the linguistic meaning, but is associated with a (redeemable) implication that there are indirect, i.e. non-truth-functional reasons for the truth - E.g. assumptions which cards the other player has - can be the truth function in Bridge (strict rules).
If/truth-functional/Cohen: E.g. If he was surprised, he didn't t show it - if that is truth-functional, it would be acceptable, because the consequent is true, but you do not have to accept the conversion yet: if he was not surprised, he also showed no surprise - although the trailer would be true here too - reason: Here, "if" has the meaning of "even if" and not of "if-then"_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
H. Paul Grice
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, Hg. Georg Meggle Frankfurt/M. 1993