|Logical constants: logical constants are also called logical particles or connectives, they are e.g. “and”; “or”; “if”; “then”; “not”. The expression constant is used, because the meaning of the logical links cannot change also in the translation into other languages, but always remains. For example, if one was to try to replace "and" with "or" in the case of a translation, mistakes would arise which could be determined, even if the vocabulary of the foreign language is not entirely known._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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|EMD II 199
Logical constants/Evans: logical constants must be identifiable by comparing conclusions: for example, from "John knows that snow is white" is concluded without logical constants (truth follows from knowledge). - But e.g. from "John is a tall man" to "John is a man" via constants (here "and").
"And": semantic property: it forms truths if and only if it connects truths.
Evans: conclusion without constants: from knowledge to truth! - Despite the same semantic structure, these are other inferences with knowledge than with belief.
And/or/Evans: For example, "P and Q" and "P or Q" have the same semantic structure. - The fact that the former contains P is due to the special variation of the word "and" that it plays in a theme that has it in common with "or". - Strawson: if any pair of non-synonymous terms reveal the same type or category, then it should be "and" and "or", or "all" and "some" - Evans: intuitionistic sentence connections "and"/"or" cannot be regarded as truth functions.
Constants/Quine: constants rise in the construction._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
G. Evans/J. McDowell
Truth and Meaning Oxford 1977
The Varieties of Reference (Clarendon Paperbacks) Oxford 1989