Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Logic: logic is the doctrine of the admissibility or inadmissibility of relations between statements and thus the validity of the compositions of these statements. In particular, the question is whether conclusions can be obtained from certain presuppositions such as premises or antecedents. Logical formulas are not interpreted at first. Only the interpretation, i. e. the insertion of values, e.g. objects instead of the free variables, makes the question of their truth meaningful.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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II 47ff
Bivalence: Problem: Sorites.
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II 53
Bivalence is still a basic feature of our scientific world. - In the liberal sense there is no problem - Frege: each general term is true or not - all terms are vague by ostension.
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II 168
Logic, old: deals with properties - new: with relations - Quine: feels implications.
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II 169
Logic, old: failed with relative terms: drawing figures/drawing circles (Carroll) - new: no problem with that: implication lies precisely in the relative term.
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II 173
Existence: "all x are y" controversy: does this imply the existence of "x"? medieval logic: yes
- Modern Times: No (thus gains in symmetry and simplicity).
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VII 82
Logic/Quine: triple: propositions - classes - relations - logical terms: we only need three "e" ("element of") - Sheffer stroke and universal quantifier.
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VII 82
Logic/Quine: triple: propositions - classes - relations - logical terms: we only need three "e" ("element of") - Sheffer stroke and universal quantifier.
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VII 119 ff
Class logic/Quine: emerges from quantifier logic if we bind scheme letters (predicate letters) "F" etc. - ((s) 2nd order Logic ).
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IX 8
Logic/Quine: main task: to prove the validity of schemes - 2nd order logic: this is about the validity of the formula schemes of quantifier logic - E.g. substitutability of bi-subjunction:
"x1 ..." xn[((AB) and CA)> CB].
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X 110
Logic/Quine: if you determine the totality of logical truths, you have established the logic.
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X 110
Different logic/Quine: no differing procedure of taking evidence, but rejection of part of the logic as untrue.
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X 111
"Everything could be different"/translation/different logic/interchanging/and/or/key position/ Gavagai/Quine: assuming a heterodox logic, in which the laws of the adjunction now apply to the conjunction, and vice versa - mere change of phonetics or the designation. - ((s) If he says adjunction, he uses our conjunction.) - Quine: we force our logic on him by translating his different way of expressing himself. - It is pointless to ask which one is the right conjunction. - There is also no essence of the conjunction beyond the sounds and signs and the laws for its use.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Q I
W.V.O. Quine
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

Q II
W.V.O. Quine
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

Q III
W.V.O. Quine
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

Q IX
W.V.O. Quine
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

Q V
W.V.O. Quine
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

Q VI
W.V.O. Quine
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

Q VII
W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

Q VIII
W.V.O. Quine
Bezeichnung und Referenz
In
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982

Q X
W.V.O. Quine
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

Q XII
W.V.O. Quine
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-21