Linguistic view/Field: does not assume any meanings as mind-independent entities - but assigns the words of a speaker to interpreter's words. - The relations are based on other characteristics - that is, on inferences that contain that word. - This is what I call "meaning-characteristic" - e.g.
ChurchVsLinguistic view/Translation/Field: (Church 1950): ("translation argument"): allegdly says: that if the word "lapin" means [rabbit], then it says that "lapin" means the same as "rabbit", then its German translation should be: ""lapin" means [rabbit]"" instead of ""lapin" means [Kaninchen]"" (Kaninchen, sic) - ChurchVs: but this disagrees with the purpose and normal use of translations - Schiffer dito: E.g. two monolingual German speakers: Karl is told that Pierre said something in French that is equivalent to "Schnee ist weiß" (german, sic) - Fritz : ... equivalent to "snow is white".
Problem: absurd: then Karl thinks rather than Fritz that Pierre said that Schnee ist weiß (sic, german) - but only because of the linguistic view.
FieldVsVs: the linguistic view only has to be formulated more cautiously.
Solution: > quasi-translation or > quasi-meaning.
Leeds/linguistic view/LeedsVsChurch/Meaning/Extension/Field: (Leeds, 1979): literal meaning/Leeds: E.g. the German word "bedeutet" means literally not the same as the English word "means": it does not even have the same extension. - N.B.: (hereinafter "Hund", sic) "means" refers to "Hund" and "Hund" to "Hund", but not to "dog". - "Means": "dog" refers to "dog" and "Hund" to "dog" but not to "Hund". - But: "bedeutet" and "means" are nevertheless in an important homology relation:
Homology/meaning/Field: E.g. following two predicates are extensively different:
a) "the temperature-in-Fahrenheit of x is r" and
b) "the temperature-in-celsius of x is r" - solution: this homology makes it sensibly to translate "bedeutet Hund" as "means dog" - Leeds: the literal meaning is not important. We cannot get it. - Field dito - DummettVsChurch: that undermines his argument.
Linguistic view: Alternative to it:
a) to assume that that-sentences do not denote and "means that" are "believes that" operators - E.g. inference of "Susan believes that E = mc²" to "Susan believes Einstein's theory". - Then the first is only the abbreviation of the second. - Then that-sentences are still singular terms.
b) That-sentences and parentheses refer to intentional entities.
Realism, Mathematics and Modality Oxford New York 1989
Truth and the Absence of Fact Oxford New York 2001
Science without numbers Princeton New Jersey 1980
"Realism and Relativism", The Journal of Philosophy, 76 (1982), pp. 553-67
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994