|Ultimate justification: here we are concerned with the search for a justification of ethical norms or of measurement methods, which are proven to be no longer traceable. These are intended to enable the development of systems which cannot be rebutted as a whole, but against which only objections with regard to the internal structure can be put forward. This is intended to encourage collective work to improve generally accepted systems.|
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|II 131 ff
Explanation/Ultimate Justification/Leibniz/existence/Nozick: 1. Inegalitarian Theory: Distinction of something before the nothing - 2. Egalitarian Theory: (Probability Theory): Nothing is equal: when multiple options are accepted, then nothing is very unlikely because only one of many possibilities can consist. - Richness: all possibilities are realized. - Requirement: possible worlds are separated, otherwise contradictions - realm of possibilities includes possible worlds - in addition: principle of invariance: otherwise there are possible worlds that exclude possibilities: Restricted richness/self-subsumption: validity due to application, reference and supply by itself. Then existence is not a hard fact and not arbitrary (due to invariance).
Explanation/Ultimate Justification/Nozick: Problem: the various limited types of richness all apply because of their limitation and because of their validity and because of their special invariance principle. - This is just the characteristic of reflexivity.
Explanation/Ultimate Justification/Nozick: it is no shame that circularity occurs at the end if it is only avoided in the middle. - It should not be an addition ("and that are all"). - Principle of sufficient reason: every truth has an explanation.
Self-subsumption/self-affirmation/Ultimate Justification/Nozick: self-subsumption is a sign of a fundamentality, not for truth. - Something can be fundamental in one dimension, without being fundamental in another. - A fundamental principle needs not to be "non-circular". - In different realms different relations, orders and connections apply. - E.g. justification, explanation, evidence.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994