|Counterfactual conditional: the counterfactual conditional is equivalent to unreal conditional sentences. Conditionals, in which a fact is mentioned in the antecedent, which is not the case. If A were the case, B would have been the case. Counterfactual conditionals are needed because of the indeterminacy of pointing. One cannot unequivocally single out a certain element of a situation. The counterfactual conditional tells us which element would have had to be different in order for a process under examination to have a different outcome._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Counterfactual Conditionals/Putnam: what possible situations are relevant?
Counterfactual Conditionals/PutnamVsLewis: but there are situations in which it is simply not true that B would not have happened if A had not happened.
E.g. B could have been caused by another cause - E.g. identical twins: it is true that both always have the same hair color - but the hair of one is not the cause of the hair of the other - Lewis cannot separate that - Counterfactual Conditionals/Mackie: depends on the knowledge level - statement which conclusions from it are allowed - Knowledge: only "the match was lit" nothing more - Counterfactual Conditionals/Sellars: has assertibility conditions, no truth conditions.
Counterfactual Conditionals/Lewis: (follows Stalnaker): truth conditions for counterfactual conditionals with possible worlds and similarity metrics. - Putnam: an ontology with possible worlds is not materialistic. - PutnamVs: the similarity metrics must not be intrinsic (with mind-independent decision on relevance), otherwise the world would be like a mind itself. PutnamVsLewis: this is idealism, and that might not only be gradually true. - False: to say "It's all physical, except this similarity metrics"._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Von einem Realistischen Standpunkt Frankfurt 1993
Repräsentation und Realität Frankfurt 1999
Für eine Erneuerung der Philosophie Stuttgart 1997
Pragmatismus Eine offene Frage Frankfurt 1995
Vernunft, Wahrheit und Geschichte Frankfurt 1990
Robert D., Putnam
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community New York 2000