|Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.|
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).
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Causality / empiricism / Wessel: we have introduced c. so that we first received a class of statements as being about emprical relationships and say only what is an empirical relationship.
Causality / force / Wessel: paradox: if two equal forces are applied from opposite sides, the body remains at rest - solution: conditions are missing - Paradox of the relationship: if z from X and V from Y, then appears to follow from X + Y + z + v, but not, if the forces are contradictory - solution: tendency predicates: "the body has a tendency to move" simultaneous contradictory tendencies are not mutually exclusive.
Causality / Cause / logic / science / Wessel: some causes are construed as transitive, others not, so there are several types of causal relationships.
Logik Berlin 1999