|Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.|
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).
_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.
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Causality/State/Lewis: A possible world that consisted only of a distribution of states ((s) without the assumed objects) would be causally just like ours. - There are no properties of the actual world except those that supervene on the distribution of local qualities - causality: is determined by nothing except by the distribution of local qualities.
Backward/Backwardness/Lewis: only allowed with counterfactual conditionals outside causal contexts - false reverse causality: E.g. to say: if D had not fired, it would have meant that it was not stimulated.
Causality/Avoidance: E.g. circuit with exclusive-OR gate: each output signal is partly caused by the absence of a second input signal - then the match is a fluke.
Schwarz I 131 ~
Causality/Lewis/Schwarz: counterfactual conditionals without causality: E.g. Had I not turned the handle, the window would not have opened - e.g. Had Socrates not died, Xanthippe would not have become a widow - e.g. Had I not written to X, I would not have written to Larry. - Events must not overlap, otherwise, for example, a football match would be caused by its first half ((s) because of counterfactual conditionals).
Schwarz I 135
Reverse causality/Time/Hausmann/Lewis: E.g. Fred jumps off the bridge - counterfactual: what is the next possible worlds in which he does not end up in the water? - Pre-history is the same up to the last moment, then great miracle needed - small wonder: if he does not even jump - important argument: then the landing caused the jump! - ((s) Because absence of landing can only be explained by absence of jump?)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Die Identität von Körper und Geist Frankfurt 1989
Konventionen Berlin 1975
Philosophical Papers Bd I New York Oxford 1983
Philosophical Papers Bd II New York Oxford 1986
Cl. I. Lewis
Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge (Dover Books on Western Philosophy) 1991
David Lewis Bielefeld 2005