|Calculus: a calculus is a system of symbols for objects (which are not further specified) as well as rules for the formation of expressions by the composition of these symbols. There are other rules for transforming composite expressions into other expressions. As long as no specified objects are accepted for the individual symbols, the calculus is not interpreted, otherwise interpreted.|
Books on Amazon
|Hintikka I 26
Calculus/Wittgenstein/Hintikka: if language is calculus - (WittgensteinVs) - you can use formalism to label those parts of language, which are subject to variation.
Calculus/Description/Border/Wittgenstein: a calculus cannot be described without using it, and language cannot be described without specifying its meaning.
Mental Acts/Wittgenstein: are not used in addition to calculating or speaking - instead: calculus, precisely speaking as such - Calculating: one step at a time - no mental act which anticipates the whole - even meaning is not a mental process that would accompany the words.
Calculus/Wittgenstein: two different calculi can result in e.g. 3 - but they are still two different results.
Vorlesungen 1930-35 Frankfurt 1989
Das Blaue Buch - Eine Philosophische Betrachtung Frankfurt 1984
Tractatus Logico Philosophicus Frankfurt/M 1960
Jaakko and Merrill B. Hintikka
The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic Dordrecht 1989
J. Hintikka/M. B. Hintikka
Untersuchungen zu Wittgenstein Frankfurt 1996