|Calculus: a calculus is a system of symbols for objects (which are not further specified) as well as rules for the formation of expressions by the composition of these symbols. There are other rules for transforming composite expressions into other expressions. As long as no specified objects are accepted for the individual symbols, the calculus is not interpreted, otherwise interpreted._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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Propositional logic/propositional calculus/Quine: p, q relate to propositional terms, whatever they may be, but propositional terms like truth values are indistinguishable in terms of the calculus. ((s) only if they are interpreted (something is inserted) - p, q do not refer but you can also consider them as referring.
Predicate calculus 2nd stage: individuals and classes of individuals._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953
Bezeichnung und Referenz
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003