Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Everyone, all: “everyone” and “all” are colloquial forms, which are formalized in logic as quantifiers (universal quantifier). While "all" refers to a collective in general, "everyone" refers to individuals. E.g. everyone can win the lottery, but not all can win the lottery.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 9
Each/all/any/a/Geach: "Every boy loves a girl", misunderstanding: ambiguous: a) harmless with "kisses", b) devastating with "marries".
Solution: Bracket: God can (everything he can): not trivial - but: God can do anything (what he can): - trivial.
I 78
Each/Geach: is not a name, also not an incomplete object. Problem with negation. - E.g. "Wisdom is something that is not possessed by everyone." Solution: here "wisdom" is not a singular term but corresponds to "is wise".
I 113f
Each/Geach: real: "Everyone loves Smith and everyone loves Brown." - fake:
"Everyone loves himself".
This can be true, even if "every man loves ---" appeals to no one. - But: Problem: "Someone hates himself" - "Someone hates everyone" - both must be wrong if there is no one of whom "someone hates ---" is true. - (+) - criterion: "casus" (assumed situation with all combinations) must not have a false conclusion from true premises.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Gea I
P.T. Geach
Logic Matters Oxford 1972

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-05-26