|Intentionality: intentionality is the ability of people and higher animals to relate to and react to circumstances such as things and states. Concepts, words, and sentences also refer to something but have no intentionality. This linguistic relating-to is called reference instead.|
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Causal chain: if the name is passed "from link to link", then the receiver of the name must probably intend to use it with the same reference. When I hear "Napoleon" and decide that this would be a nice name for my aardvark, then I do not fulfil this condition. It allows me to set up a new link and transmit it to other people. But otherwise it is not a link of the required type.
Name und Notwendigkeit Frankfurt 1981
S. A. Kripke
Outline of a Theory of Truth (1975)
Recent Essays on Truth and the Liar Paradox, R. L. Martin (Hg), Oxford/NY 1984