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Individual calculus / Clarke / Simons: the linguistic domain of classic i.c. is a full Boolean algera without neutral element - there is no boundary elements. - (Eg points) - Clarke: There are two types of individuals: a) "soft" (open) touch anything - b) "hard" that are in contact with something.
Individual calculus / Leonard Goodman / stronger / weaker / Simons: Advantage: weaker than Set Theory: - prevents infinite ascending chains of new entities from old - "no discrimination without distinction of content" - SimonsVs: Problem: characteristics of the term "part" - weaker: a weaker theory provides more varied terms.
Parts Oxford New York 1987