Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments


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Imperatives: Commands are similar to statements, but do not establish any facts. The question is whether truth values can be attributed to them in logic, e.g. if they are obeyed or not obeyed. With a rewording like "It is necessary that ..." commands can be aligned to factual findings.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 275f
Command/Moral/Logic/Geach: a statement-line cannot be in an if-clause. - "If you want ..." these are real imperatives, only grammatically a hypothetical sentence. - The wish itself has nothing to do with the truth conditions. - But an utterance does not get empty qua imperative, simply because it cannot be fulfilled.
I 282
Imperative/Logic/Geach: difficult problems: "Tu x or tu y!" Cannot be interpreted as "I command x or I command y" - analog to assertions: l- p v q cannot be interpreted as l-p or l-q.
Solution/Hare/Geach: distinction neustic/tropic/Hare (> Hare, R.M.: >phrasticon, >neusticon). - E.g. tropic: is identical in "Tu x or tu y" and "You will do x or you will do y". - Phrasticon: "Your future doing of either x or y" - Neusticon: "Please!" or yes". (assertorically).
Disjunction/Geeach: it belongs to the tropic. - Neustic: is added to the tropic as a whole, not to one or the other disjoint.
Zoglauer I 23
Definition Tropic/Hare: descriptive component of a standard sentence-
Definition Neustic/Hare: prescriptive component of a standard sentence.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gea I
P.T. Geach
Logic Matters Oxford 1972

Zo I
Th. Zoglauer
Einführung in die formale Logik für Philosophen Göttingen 2002

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-02-25
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