# Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Identity: Two objects are never identical. Identity is a single object, to which may be referred to with two different terms. The fact that two descriptions mean a single object may be discovered only in the course of an investigation.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Bertrand Russell on Identity - Dictionary of Arguments

Prior I 163
Identity/Russell: "a=a" "the a is the a" is false if there is no a or if there are multiple a - Def self-identity/Russell: nevertheless Russell’s Law "x = x" is part of his system - "For any φ if x φs, then φs x" - if we define individual existence as Lesniewkian self-identity, then it comes out at a class which must be regarded as a class of one and which can be predicted from some, but not from all classes.
- - -
Russell I 58
Identity/Principia Mathematica/Russell: no judgment! E.g. we do not judge that Socrates = Socrates. In a way, we judge an ambiguous case of propositional function (propositional function) "A is A".
Containment/Identity/Element relations/Equal sign/Epsilon/Principia Mathematica/(s): therefore containment must not be the same as identity, otherwise from the right
i'x = i'x
follows the wrong
i'x ε i'x
i.e., a class may not be identical with its (perhaps only) element.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Russell I
Principia Mathematica Frankfurt 1986

Russell II
B. Russell
The ABC of Relativity, London 1958, 1969
German Edition:
Das ABC der Relativitätstheorie Frankfurt 1989

Russell IV
B. Russell
The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912
German Edition:
Probleme der Philosophie Frankfurt 1967

Russell VI
B. Russell
"The Philosophy of Logical Atomism", in: B. Russell, Logic and KNowledge, ed. R. Ch. Marsh, London 1956, pp. 200-202
German Edition:
Die Philosophie des logischen Atomismus
In
Eigennamen, U. Wolf (Hg), Frankfurt 1993

Russell VII
B. Russell
On the Nature of Truth and Falsehood, in: B. Russell, The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912 - Dt. "Wahrheit und Falschheit"
In
Wahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996

Pri I
A. Prior
Objects of thought Oxford 1971

Pri II
Arthur N. Prior
Papers on Time and Tense 2nd Edition Oxford 2003

Russell VII
B. Russell
On the Nature of Truth and Falsehood, in: B. Russell, The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912 - Dt. "Wahrheit und Falschheit"
In
Wahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996

> Counter arguments against Russell
> Counter arguments in relation to Identity ...

Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2022-01-28