|Quantities, physics: measurable properties of objects, processes or states. See also Scales, Proportions, Change, Motion, Processes, Flux, Space, Time, Spacetime, Metrisability.|
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Quantities/physics/Newton: a) absolute quantities: they appear in the axioms (not perceivable) - b) perceivable quantities ("sensible") - these are determined experimentally.
Apparent movement/Copernicus: there is a difference between the true motion of the earth and the true motions of the planets - "true"/Copernicus: = is relative to the sun - relative motions/Newton: (all observable motions) is always identifiable as the difference between true motions - phenomena/Fraassen: we call these relative (relational) structures phenomena. Movements/Fraassen: movements are the structures that the perceived motions show (phenomena) - phenomenon: is always identifiable with movements in a model -> "empirical structures" - absolute acceleration/Newton: absolute acceleration produces strain and compression in the phenomena - Newton: if the center were in another constant absolute motion (not acceleration) the phenomena would not change - "because force is associated with acceleration, not velocity". Empirical adequacy: there is a model so that all phenomena are identifiable with movements in the model (also historical and not perceived ones) - empirically equivalent: are two theories if they have both models that do this.
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980