Mind/Reference/Putnam: the mind does not display the world - mind and world have made mind and world together - Reference: someone who babbles technical terms in a foreign language, refers to nothing.
E.g. An ant paints a picture of Churchill in the sand - this is not a reference. - Turing Test: presupposes common reference. - But the continued existence of apples is irrelevant to the machine - the machine does not refer to apples.
To mean/reference/intention/mental state/Putnam: what is going on in the head, is not determinative for what we mean and what our words refer to: e.g. the (more narrow) mental state "I'm late" is on different weekdays the same, but it refers to different points of time. - In addition, the global mind state is different: "It's Tuesday" - but the meaning of the words does not change, otherwise words would never have meaning.
What goes on in the minds, is not determinative for reference (neither individually nor collectively)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Von einem Realistischen Standpunkt Frankfurt 1993
Repräsentation und Realität Frankfurt 1999
Für eine Erneuerung der Philosophie Stuttgart 1997
Pragmatismus Eine offene Frage Frankfurt 1995
Vernunft, Wahrheit und Geschichte Frankfurt 1990
Robert D., Putnam
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community New York 2000