Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Wholes, philosophy: the concept of the whole is unique only in connection with further specification. In the mereology the term avoids paradoxes that occur in connection with the universal class (universal set). The whole is not different from its parts in the way a set is different from its elements. See also unity, one, set, universal class, universal set, mereology, parts, part-of-relation, mereological sum, upper bound, totality.
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I 171
Whole / part / Maturana: a whole can not operate as its own component: unit has two non-overlapping regions that are distinguished (as simple / composite) - ((s) of connection of level and area: the level "has a range".)

Mat I
U. Maturana
Biologie der Realit├Ąt Frankfurt 2000

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-24