|Existence, philosophy, logic: the fact that there is something to which properties can be attributed. That does not mean that something has to be given immediately or can be perceived by the senses. See also ontology, properties, predicates, existence statements, realism, quantification, ascription.|
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Interrupted existence/Simons. E.g. clock before and after disassembly - Problem: if parts are lost and are replaced by others, the question whether it continues to exist as the same depends on the course of development - that seems wrong - SimeonsVs "continuity theory": (E.g. that the table of the same building blocks could be the same for the second time). -> Ship of Theseus.
Ship of Theseus/Simons: a) "collector": material continuity - b) "practitioner": functional continuity - wrong: relativized identity (also for collector/practitioner) - then question why any problem - solution/Simons: sortal term always compromise between a) the identity of the matter, "matter-constant" - b) the form, "form-constant" - form: a) for organisms: life-enabling structure - b) artifacts: function-enabling - c) E.g. Islands: characteristic shape and relation to the neighborhood - form term/Simons: its heterogeneity ensures its usefulness - collectors and practitioners are satisfied because both wanted from the beginning, something different - N.B.: from the beginning two ships (form-constant, matter-constant), both coincide. - The shipbuilder builds only one ship -> coincidence - see identity.
Existence/modality/necessity/Simons: Thesis: not everything that exists, exists necessarily - Hughes/Cresswell: but if it exists, it exists necessarily. - ((s) That boils down to the same thing with Simons).
Samson's thesis: existence is essential but not necessary.
Parts Oxford New York 1987