|Ethics, philosophy: ethics is concerned with the evaluation and justification of actions and ultimately a justification of morality. See also good, values, norms, actions, deontology, deontic logic, consequentialism, morals, motives, reasons, action theory._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Ethics/concepts/Williams/Murdoch: 1. porous: E.g. "good and right" - more descriptive, less abstract: E.g."cruel", "chaste", and so on - Murdoch: also descriptive components are interest-relative. - VsNon-cognitivism: his division into descriptive/prescriptive does not succeed because one cannot name the components, without even using a word like "cruel" (circular) - Murdoch: World not analyzable into facts and values - Williams: pro, but we can transfer our concepts to each society.
"Dense"/Williams: E.g. "chaste" can function both as a rating as well as a description.
PutnamVsWilliams: absurd and still relativistic when "grass is green" is not to be the absolute truth (because I'm projecting colors like values) - values/Putnam: even worse off than colors, because after we figured out that we project them, we lose our ability to use them.
PutnamVsWilliams: too complicated metaphysical. - Definition ratings/Dewey: arise from a critique of various problem-solving processes.
Ethics/language/meaning/values/Putnam: E.g. Superbenthamian: Approves the most cruel acts for "the good of the majority" - after a while the language use in reference to "sincere" separates between him and us. - That does not mean that we and the superbenthamian agree about the facts and disagree with respect to the values - we live in different worlds.
PutnamVsBentham: we have a reason to prefer the poetry to the flea-hopping: the experience of great poetry and its aftermath.
Ethics/PutnamVsBentham: (E.g. flea-hopping): there is no prejudice to prefer the poetry. The idea that values do not belong to the blocks in the world, and the idea that "value judgments" express "prejudices" are two sides of the same coin - PutnamVsSolipsism: immoral, not everyone is trapped in a solipsistic hell, but we should participate in the discourse._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Von einem Realistischen Standpunkt Frankfurt 1993
Repräsentation und Realität Frankfurt 1999
Für eine Erneuerung der Philosophie Stuttgart 1997
Pragmatismus Eine offene Frage Frankfurt 1995
Vernunft, Wahrheit und Geschichte Frankfurt 1990
Robert D., Putnam
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community New York 2000