|Essentialism: the view that objects have some of their properties necessarily. See also essence, necessity de re, necessity, contingency, properties, actualism, possible worlds.|
Books on Amazon
|Chisholm II 173ff
mereological essentialism / Simons: a thing must be founded in all its necessary parts - part / whole relationship: is modal rigid - (Chisholm per) - Vs: most things are in flux: e.g. people; water waves - ens sukzessivum: for Chisholm any permanent thing ("continuant") obeys a particularly strict temporal version of m.e.: if another permanent thing in any world at any time is part of it, this is part has to be a part of it at all times and in all the worlds in which there exists the whole thing - solution: entia sukzessiva: things in flux: are themselves not permanent but constituted from permanent things (continuants).
Parts Oxford New York 1987
Die erste Person Frankfurt 1992
Roderick M. Chisholm
Erkenntnistheorie Graz 2004