Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Donkey sentences, philosophy: term for logical problems, which preferably, but not essentially refer to donkeys. An early example is Buridan's donkey. A modern donkey sentence is "Geach's donkey" "Anyone who has a donkey beats it." Formal logic is here too rigid to map the possible limiting cases that are not problematic for the everyday language. See also existential quantification, universal quantification, range, scope, quantification, quantifiers, brackets, branched quantifiers.
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Geach / Buridan (e.g. donkey): reference must be independent of the truth value - or in "A is a donkey" A should be for you if the answer is yes and for Brownie, if the answer is no - problem: either you are an ass or brownie is not a donkey - but only because reference is not initially fixed -> "heterological"

Gea I
P.T. Geach
Logic Matters Oxford 1972

> Counter arguments against Geach

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-29