|Particular, individual thing, philosophy: this is about the problems associated with the introduction of linguistic expressions for objects that can be specified as individuals. See also individuation, objects, thing, identification, specification, singular terms, general term, universals.|
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Particular /object / TugendhatVsDonnellan: localizing descriptions are fundamental - for these there is no difference ref. / att. - attributive is also referential in the broad sense, because the objects although not identified, are specified (against a background).
Particulars / identification / TugendhatVsStrawson: "here", "now" are sufficient to make objects and space-time points existent - space-time-points are the most basic objects - but there must be also something - at least hypothetically, then a question provides the relevant issue of verification for which object the singular term stands.- top-down: the use of all singular terms refers to demonstrative expressions - Bottom-up: when the verfication situation for applying the predicate is referred to by demonstratives.
Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Sprachanalytische Philosophie Frankfurt 1976
Philosophische Aufsätze Frankfurt 1992