|Forms of arguments, typical patterns.:_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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In fact, it seems that the two worlds are identical, except that there is a permutation of identities, that is, of counterparts. This, the anti-Haeccetist replies, is a distinction without distinction!
Now, here, all meaning of "truth" and "falsehood" is abstracted, except for their difference.
The classical view with the substitution of Bolzano produces too much: it counts conclusions as valid, which are obviously invalid.
But it also produces too little by citing arguments as invalid which should be recognized as valid in a plausible manner.
It is disputed whether the production of such a counterexample is a necessary condition for the invalidity. That is, whether the inability to produce one is sufficient for validity.
Stalnaker: includes an "impossible world" under his worlds, which he calls lambda, in which every statement is true! All such conditional sentences are found to be true here.
If the boundary (interpretation or naming) between two things is indeterminate, one is the other in an undefined way.
But if we were to protest against the introduction of a new link with the sole reason that it leads to a paradox, this objection would be entirely ad hoc. There would be no diagnosis of the problem.
Bluriness (fuzzy): does not help with Sorites - graduation distribution is no possibility distribution.
Impermissible duplication: the mythical Crete, as different from Greek Crete, the historical, the European, the remembered._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Me I Albert Menne Folgerichtig Denken Darmstadt 1988
HH II Hoyningen-Huene Formale Logik, Stuttgart 1998
Re III Stephen Read Philosophie der Logik Hamburg 1997
Sal IV Wesley C. Salmon Logik Stuttgart 1983
Sai V R.M.Sainsbury Paradoxien Stuttgart 2001