|de re, philosophy: statements that refer to non-linguistic objects are de re. Here, most authors assume that the ascribed properties are contingent. An exception is essentialism which ascribes certain necessary properties to objects. See also de dicto, necessity de re, contingency, modality, essentialism.|
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Belief de re/propositional attitudes/Cresswell: the numbers 5 and 7, so that they have a certain property, namely the property of giving together 12 - de re: is the correct analysis for sentences with propositional attitude, because it is sensitive to the individual parts, not only for the whole that-sentence - the opposite position: "propositional account" - this corresponds to the relation theory problem: the proposition: that 5 + 7 = 12 is the same as that 12 = 12 - but this cannot be paraphrased like this for the attribution of propositional attitude.
Belief de re/Example Ralph/Ortcutt:/Cresswell: problem: that Ortcutt loves Ortcutt, should be the same proposition as that Ortcutt loves himself - way of picking out - for Ralph: not through the brown hat - therefore Ralph only agreed with the first proposition, not with the second - but the first is de dicto.
Belief de re/Cresswell: is not compatible with an abstention from the judgment - from "x does not believe G of y" cannot be concluded - "x does not believe that G of y" - Kaplan: that is also a solution for Example Ralph/Ortcutt.
De re/Wesen/Lewis/Cresswell: (Lewis 1979a, 540): Knowledge of the nature is a too strong condition for reference de re.
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984