|Demonstratives: E.g. this, that, that one. Problems in language use bcause of lack of clarity when referring back to prior description. - In logic missing expressibility of uniqueness. See also anaphora, deixis, relations, logical proper names, index words, indexicality, iota operator._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Demonstratives / possible worlds / knowledge / belief / Nozick: "given that" compels us to keep things constant and therefore to consider more distant worlds - also demonstratives can fix things - II 226 e.g. "Do I know that this e- thing (a pen with familiar scratch) is h? "here e is kept fixed (constant) and the answer seems to provoke the skeptic that h is not known - solution: in reality it is about "non-(e and non-h)" which is not known - skepticism: if e is the only evidence and does not imply (entail) h, how do we know that h, given e? - narrower skepticism: goes even further: e falls into a class of statements (about behavior), and h (the conclusion) to another (via mental states)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994