|Picture: an object which is in a specified relationship to another object. The objects may originate from different areas such as experience and imagination or from similar areas (lighting and photography) or from the same domain as in the forgery. Mathematics here the required relation is defined a function.|
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Picture/Goodman: Pictures are more likely to compare with the temperature events, than with the heights of the mercury column.
Because in the systems in question, the images are like the temperatures rather denoted, they do not denote themselves.
Definition seeing/Goodman: what properties a picture exemplifies or expresses is comparable to the use of a scale-free thermometer.
Definition saying/Goodman: to say what the picture exemplifies, is then a matter of fitting the correct words from a syntactically unlimited and semantically dense language. There will always be another expression, such that we cannot determine what is actually exemplified by the picture in question. To say what a picuture exemplifies is like measuring without giving tolerance ranges.
Pictorial exemplification/Goodman: So in reality it is an inverted display or measuring system.
Systems may not be equated with language. Languages have alphabets, pictorial systems not.
Pictorial elements/Goodman: can never, how similar they may be, represent syntactic equivalents. Because without an alphabet we have no way to differentiate for marks significant and insignificant differences.
A blurry horse-representation is certainly not a representation of a blurred horse. The blurriness belongs to the presentation or imagination.
We do not have a lexicon of pictorial forms. Therefore, the theory of language cannot explain visual skills.
Photography/Goodman: A photograph of the surface of Mars reminds us that the Mediumn does not provide its own scale for size and distance.
Digital/analog/Goodman: is the picture composite of dots no digital picture? No! Because no symbol is digital or analogous.
A complete scheme is only pictural if it is analog. Verbally, if it is digital.
In other words, not each analog, full scheme is pictural and not each digital full scheme is verbal.
Picture/Goodman: So we are unable to reach a definition of images.
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989