|Picture: an object which is in a specified relationship to another object. The objects may originate from different areas such as experience and imagination or from similar areas (lighting and photography) or from the same domain as in the forgery. Mathematics here the required relation is defined a function.|
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Image/Representation/Photo/Photography/Counterfeiting/Cresswell: E.g. an old photograph of Wellington was causally caused by how things were in Wellington at this time. - Question: "What is it a picture of?": Here one can specify the causal history. - Counterfeiting: Solution: the counterfeit shows how the world should be, so that the picture is a picture of it. - Realization of an image: the set of possible worlds, in which that happens what the image shows. - Problem: E.g. House: is it empty or full of people? - False: to say that it is "either full or empty". - Solution: possible worlds which are as the picture shows - ((s) Then the house can accommodate every number of people.)
Image/Representation/Howell/Cresswell: Thesis: one cannot simply say that an image represents something, but only that a subject understands the image at t in such a way that it represents that - more precisely, a 5-digit operator (time, person, circumstances, representation) - Sober: Thesis: pictorial representation is not so different from linguistic representation, as is often assumed.
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984