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Aggression/Molecular Genetics: for literature examining genetic contributions to the development of aggression and how genetic and environmental factors interact to confer risk see Beisky & Pluess, 2009(1); Dick et al., 2006)(2). >Aggression/Bandura, >Aggression/Developmental psychology, >Bobo doll study/Bandura.
Bandura: In assigning participants to control and experimental groups in the Bobo doll study, Bandura et al.(3) recognized that children initially predisposed to aggressive behavior might be more susceptible to imitating novel aggressive behaviors than children not predisposed to aggressive behavior would be and therefore matched children on levels of aggression before randomly assigning them to a control or experimental group.
There is now empirical evidence that particular genes confer risk for the development of aggressive behavior, but this genetic risk can be moderated by environmental factors (Caspi et al., 2002(4); Dodge, 2009(5)).
For example, variants of the CHRM2 gene are differentially associated with trajectories of externalizing behavior (including aggression), but links between the risky variant of CHRM2 and externalizing are exacerbated for adolescents who affiliate with deviant peers (Latendresse et al., 2011)(6). Dick et al. (2009)(7) demonstrated that adolescents carrying a risky GABRA2 genotype were likely to have persistently high levels of externalizing behavior from early adolescence into adulthood; however GABRA2 genotype interacted with parental monitoring such that the link between GABRA2 and high externalizing behavior was weakened by high levels of parental monitoring.
1. Beisky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885—908.
2. Dick, D. M., Bierut, L., Hinrichs, A., Fox, L., Buchoiz, K. K., Kramer, J., Kuperman, S., Hasseibrock, V.,
Schuckit, M., & Almasy, L. (2006). The role of GABRA2 in risk for conduct disorder and alcohol and drug dependence across different developmental stages. Behavior Genetics, 36, 577—590.
3. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575—582.
4. Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., Taylor, A., & Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851—854.
5. Dodge, K. A. (2009). Mechanisms of gene-environment interaction effects in the development of conduct disorder. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 4, 408—414.
6. Latendresse, S. J., Bates, J. E., Goodmight, J. A., Lansford, J. E., Budde, J. P., Goate, A., Dodge, K. A.,
Pettit, G. S., & Dick, D. M. (2011). Differential susceptibility to adolescent externalizing trajectories:
Examining the interplay between CHRM2 and peer group antisocial behavior. Child Development,
82, 1797—18 14.
7. Dick, D. M., Latendresse, S. J., Lansford, J. E., Budde, J. P., Goate, A., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates
J. E. (2009). The role of GABRA2 in trajectories of externalizing behavior across development and evidence of moderation by parental monitoring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 649—657.
Jenifer E. Lansford, “Aggression. Beyond Bandura’s Bobo Doll Studies“, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012