|Motion: spatial variation of one or more observed or not observed objects in time. Problems arising in connection with attribution or withdrawal of predicates. See also change, temporal identity, process, flux, vectors.|
Books on Amazon
Apparent motion/Copernicus: there is a difference between the true motion of the earth and the true motions of the planets - "true"/Copernicus: = relative to the sun - relative B/Newton: (all observable B) always identifiable as the difference between true B - phenomena/Fraassen: we call these relative (relational) structures phenomena - motions/Fraassen: are the structures that show the perceived motions (phenomena)
Phenomenon: a phenomenon is always identifiable with movements in a model -> "empirical structures" - absolute acceleration/Newton: absolute acceleration produces strain and compression in the phenomena - Newton: would the center be in another constant absolute movement (not acceleration) the phenomena would not change because power is connected to acceleration not to speed - empirical adequacy: there is a model, so that all phenomena are identifiable with motions in the model (also historical, not perceived ones). Two theories are empirically equivalent if they have both models that can perform this.
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980