|Meaning: Differs from the reference object (reference). The object does not have to exist for an expression to have a meaning. Words are not related to objects in a one-to-one correspondence. There is an important distinction between word meaning and sentence meaning. See also use theory, sentence meaning, reference, truth.|
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Properties: These necessary properties of gold (periodic table, element instead of mixture, use) are certainly not part of the meaning of the word "gold" and were not recognized a priori.
Meaning is not derived from properties.
Necessary properties do not need to belong to the meaning! (Periodic Table later discovered). Scholarly findings do not change the meaning.
Meaning: analytical (necessary): new discoveries do not change the meaning, they are part of it from the outset.
But: estuary does not belong to the meaning of Dartmouth. I 35 (also Quine, bachelor).
Stalnaker I 246
Kripke/Stephen Yablo/Stalnaker: a "prime example of Kripkeanism": that there are two kinds of meaning for "water": a) a reference-defining definition in terms of the manifest properties with which we pick out water. ---
But that does not mean that b) the facts on which we agree when it comes to water, which are implicit in the meaning of the word "water" or that we know a priori that water has the properties that we use to scoop it.
Name und Notwendigkeit Frankfurt 1981
S. A. Kripke
Outline of a Theory of Truth (1975)
Recent Essays on Truth and the Liar Paradox, R. L. Martin (Hg), Oxford/NY 1984
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003