Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Meaning: Differs from the reference object (reference). The object does not have to exist for an expression to have a meaning. Words are not related to objects in a one-to-one correspondence. There is an important distinction between word meaning and sentence meaning. See also use theory, sentence meaning, reference, truth.
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I 2 ff
Meaning/drawing/photography: The photo with Mr. X in an obvious position with Mrs Y did not mean anything! - The drawing with the same object meant something. (>Intention).
I 4
Definition meanings/Grice: "natural meaning" measles, signs, natural signs are detected, not appointed, plumbable, no convention Definition meanings: non-natural meaning expression, character, appointment, convention, metaphors, unconscious regularities.
I 17
Meaning/Grice: does not follow from intention: E.g. perpetrator may leave false traces.
I 8
Intention needs idea about the effect - listener-meaning: what the other should do in my opinion, cannot deliver the meanings. - Deviation: needs good reasons.
I 36
Speaker-meaning: may be different for the same sentence.
I 85
Quotation marks are semantically important.
Avr I 2
Meaning/Grice: new: (Grice 1957) Avramides: the most remarkable thing about this "new approach" is the unconscious use of the terms intention and belief. - Circular: if you wanted to exclude the unwanted cases from the beginning. - prehistory: Stevenson: Meaning needs constance - otherwise only noise - Solution: habits of the speakers.
I 4
Grice/Avramidis: he is more interested in understanding how utterances come to their content. - Intentions need to be explained in terms of the content, not vice versa: that still leaves the question open how intentions and beliefs come to their content.
I 5
Grice: in the tradition of Austin/Searle, later Wittgenstein: language in the context of behavior.
Avr I 10
Meaning/Grice/Avramides: Thesis: We start with speaker-meaning in one situation and provide an analysis in terms of mental states of the speaker and the listener.
Avr I 11 fundamental: "S means in a situation that p" - thereby Grice has clarified the concept of "opining" sufficiently.
Grice I 90
Situations Meaning/Grice: can be expressed and meant but is still wrong.
I 95
Meaning/practice/Grice: the well-known practice of the speaker is not clear for the meaning: the sentence can have other meanings. - S may have other means. - We need a term like "S has in its repertoire ..."
Newen/Schrenk I 77
Meaning/Grice/Newen/Schrenk: crucial: speaker's intention - 5 steps: 1. behavior - 2. psychological theory of needs, etc. - 3. Theory of subjective utterance meanings - a) for listener - b) for speakers - 4. intersubjective meaning (conventional utterance meaning) -. VsGrice: has no theory of conventions - 5. compositionality.
N/S I 80
Natural meaning/Grice: E.g. "These spots mean measles": here, there can be no mistake! Otherwise there are other spots. - Communication: all meaning in communication is not natural meaning- not natural meaning: here there may be errors.
Schiffer I XIII
Meaning/Grice: (1957): Expression meaning in terms of speaker-meaning - ultimately purely psychological.

Gri I
H. Paul Grice
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, Hg. Georg Meggle Frankfurt/M. 1993

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> Counter arguments in relation to Meaning

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-25