Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Equivalence: Relation between sentences. It exists if both sides have the same truth value, so that they are both true or both false.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Bas van Fraassen on Equivalence - Dictionary of Arguments

I 45
Empirical equivalence: about empirical adequacy: there is a model so that all phenomena are identifiable with movements in the model (also historical, not perceived ones) - empirically equivalent: are two theories if they have both models that do that.
>Models, >Phenomena, >Truth, >Adequacy.

I 152
Relative equivalence/Fraassen: (relative to background knowledge): we recognize sodium because it has a) this spectrum
b) this atomic structure.
Asymmetry: the spectrum does not generate the atomic structure. However, there is equivalence. Yet, only one equivalence is relevant. >Asymmetry.
Equivalent propositions are true in the same possible world. >Possible worlds.
Nevertheless, we can say that some possible worlds are excluded (in which the proposition is irrelevant).
Equivalence: has indistinguishability, due to the same set of possible worlds - solution: distinction by means of making it true - e.g.
a) either it rains or it does not rain
b) ...snows or does not snow.
Difference: a) is made true by the fact that it rains,
b) by the fact that it does not snow.
Relevance of propositions depends on deeper relevances. >Relevance.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Fr I
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2022-11-30
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