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Affectional Bond/psychological theories: (cf. >Affectional bond/Bowlby, >Behavior/Harlow, >Experiments/Harlow). Studies of early experience in rodents further qualified the nature of separations that can have enduring negative effects. Daily separations are a normal part of the developing attachment bond in humans and the young child’s ability to re-establish contact with the caregiver following separation is critical for the maintenance of the bond. This point was illustrated by Seymour Levine’s work with rodents. He developed an “early handling” paradigm in which it was discovered that rat pups who experienced brief 15-minute separations from their mothers performed better as adults in an avoidance learning paradigm than pups who had not been separated from their mothers (Suomi & Levine, 1998)(1). This finding illustrated how exposure to normally occurring or “intermittent stressors” early in development results in the development of effective coping strategies later in life. Levine’s early handling paradigm and the effects of intermittent stressors has consistently been replicated in both rodent and monkey models (Lyons et al., 2010)(2).
1. Suomi, S., & Levine, S. (1998). Psychobiology of intergenerational effects of trauma: Evidence from animal studies. In Y. Daneli (Ed.), International handbook of multigenerational legacies of trauma (pp. 623–637). New York: Plenum Press
2. Lyons, D. M., Parker, K. J., & Schatzberg, A. F. (2010). Animal models of early life stress: Implications for understanding resilience. Developmental Psychobiology, 52, 616–624.
Roger Kobak, “Attachment and Early Social deprivation. Revisiting Harlow’s Monkey Studies”, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012