|Dependence: Question whether statements, phenomena, beliefs, attitudes, actions are influenced causally or otherwise by other statements, beliefs, events, actions etc. and whether this influence is indispensable for their realization. See also counterfactuals, absoluteness._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Nomic dependence/Lewis: two families of law propositions or individual fact p imply together all material conditionals between the two families. - Then the material conditionals are implied by the counterfactual conditionals which include the counterfactual dependence (conD). - The nomic dependence explains the counterfactual dependence. - Important argument: the law propositions and the fact propositions must be counterfactually independent - nomic dependence: reversible. - counterfactual dependence is irreversible - E.g. Barometer/pressure.
Dependence hypothesis/Lewis: here: set of propositions (sets of possible worlds) which specify everything the (omniscient) actor knows about causal dependence and independence of his actions - they form a partition. - I.e. they do not overlap. - Expected benefits: Do not refer to individual dependency hypotheses. - ((s) i.e. it must not be assumed to be without alternative.) - You have to spread your beliefs on several dependencies.) - Benefit: to be understood as a non-conditional belief of a variation K of an alternative dependence hypothesis. - When options and dependency hypotheses differ, the difference shows the aspect which brings the novelty. - Wrong: wanting to maximize the expected benefits to any partition - This would lead to different answers for different partitions - the partition for propositions of the value level would tell us fatalistically that all options are equally good.
Dependence hypothesis/illustration/probability distribution/Lewis: If the same dependence applies in several worlds, the images represent the worlds in the same way. - If the images are the same, we have equivalence classes. - Then we have the partition of these equivalence classes._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Clarence Irving Lewis
Collected Papers of Clarence Irving Lewis Stanford 1970
Die Identität von Körper und Geist Frankfurt 1989
Konventionen Berlin 1975
Philosophical Papers Bd I New York Oxford 1983
Philosophical Papers Bd II New York Oxford 1986
Clarence Ivar Lewis
Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge (Dover Books on Western Philosophy) 1991