Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Author Item Summary Meta data
Corr I 411
Personality traits/arousal/attention/bias/Matthews: Thesis: (Matthews 2000(1), 2008a(2)) traits typically relate to a multiplicity of biases in information-processing, which cannot be reduced to any general attentional (or arousal) mechanism.

Corr I 419
Personality traits/Cognitive-adaptive theory/Matthews: the cognitive-adaptive theory of personality traits (Matthews 1999(3), 2000(4), 2008a(5); Matthews and Zeidner 2004(6)) proposes that traits have functional coherence, not structural coherence; that is, there is no single ‘master-process’ that mediates behavioural expressions of traits, including performance effects. Traits relate to multiple, structurally
Corr I 420
independent biases in a variety of neural, computational and self-regulative processes.
However, these processing biases are related in that they support common adaptive goals that are central to the trait concerned. Traits represent different modes of adaptation to the major challenges of human life. >Anxiety/cognitive-adaptive theory/Matthews, >Extraversion/cognitive-adaptive theory/Matthews.


1. Matthews, G. 2000. A cognitive science critique of biological theories of personality traits, History and Philosophy of Psychology 2: 1–17
2. Matthews, G. 2008a. Personality and information processing: a cognitive-adaptive theory, in G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews and D. H. Saklofske (eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing, vol. I, Personality theories and models, pp. 56–79. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
3. Matthews, G. 1999. Personality and skill: a cognitive-adaptive framework, in P. L. Ackerman, P. C. Kyllonen and R. D. Roberts (eds.), The future of learning and individual differences research: processes, traits, and content, pp. 251–70. Washington, DC: APA
4. Matthews, G. 2000. A cognitive science critique of biological theories of personality traits, History and Philosophy of Psychology 2: 1–17
5. Matthews, G. 2008a. Personality and information processing: a cognitive-adaptive theory, in G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews and D. H. Saklofske (eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing, vol. I, Personality theories and models, pp. 56–79. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
6. Matthews, G. and Zeidner, M. 2004. Traits, states and the trilogy of mind: an adaptive perspective on intellectual functioning, in D. Dai and R. J. Sternberg (eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development, pp. 143–74. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum


Gerald Matthews, „ Personality and performance: cognitive processes and models“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Matthews, Gerald
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2019-07-16
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