Dictionary of Arguments

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Author Item Summary Meta data
Corr I 327
Personality traits/Cloninger: in contrast to Zuckerman, Cloninger (1987)(1) developed a model of personality traits based on the premise that individual neurotransmitter systems might be related uniquely to specific traits. Cloninger hypothesized that the dopaminergic system was linked to a trait of Novelty-Seeking, the serotonergic system to Harm Avoidance, and the norepinephrine system to Reward Dependence. Cloninger’s latest model includes these three traits plus four others: Persistence,Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence (Cloninger, Svrakic and Przybeck 1993)(2).
Corr I 328
He hypothesized that the original three traits and Persistence reflect dimensions of temperament, meaning that they should be evident early in ontogeny and strongly genetically determined. In contrast, he hypothesized that Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence reflect dimensions of character, meaning that they should develop later, being determined by experience during development rather than primarily by genes. ClonigerVsZuckerman. >Personality traits/Zuckerman, >Five-Factor Model/Zuckerman, >Temperament/Cloninger.



1. Cloninger, C. R. 1987. A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants, Archives of General Psychiatry 44: 573–88
2. Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M. and Przybeck, T. R. 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character, Archives of General Psychiatry 50: 975–90



Colin G. DeYoung and Jeremy R. Gray, „ Personality neuroscience: explaining individual differences in affect, behaviour and cognition“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Cloninger, C. Robert
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2019-05-21
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