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Adoption Studies/behavioral genetics/Munafò: Analyses of the heritability of personality traits based on twin samples alone have consistently indicated higher heritability coefficients than those based on twin, adoption and family samples, with sibling-sibling correlations of 0.17 and parent-offspring correlations of 0.14 (Bouchard and Loehlin 2001)(1). These values suggest heritability coefficients of the order of approximately 30 per cent, compared to those of 50 per cent suggested by twin studies. One possible explanation for this is the presence of non-additive genetic effects (i.e., gene × gene interactions) which would result in higher levels of similarity between MZ (monozygotic) twins than DZ (dizygotic) twins, but would not contribute to the similarity of offspring to parents (Bouchard and McGrue 2003)(2).
1. Bouchard, T. J., Jr and Loehlin, J. C. 2001. Genes, evolution, and personality, Behavioural Genetics 31: 243–73
2. Bouchard, T. J., Jr and McGue, M. 2003. Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences, Journal of Neurobiology 54: 4–45
Marcus R. Munafò,“Behavioural genetics: from variance to DNA“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.)2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Philip J. Corr
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009