|Mause I 381f
Cartels/Economic Theory: cartels are those where at least one competitive parameter is contractually defined between at least two companies and thus withdrawn from competition. (1)(2) If the agreement is informal, it is referred to as a collusion.
Horizontal Price Cartel: here the price is agreed between companies that are in direct competition with each other. From an entrepreneurial point of view, this is only profitable (and therefore rational) if either all companies in the market or at least most of them are involved, otherwise most of the customers will migrate to those competitors who compete with the cartel on price, thus eventually offering a better price-performance ratio.
If the price cartel is market-wide, it can behave like a monopoly. This is generally harmful to welfare because competition comes to a standstill.
Other forms of a cartel are the innovation cartel, the conditions cartel, the standardisation cartel, the procurement and distribution cartel, etc. No general statement can be made here about the damage to competition.
For example innovation cartel: here the resources of several companies for research and further development of products can be bundled.
For example, standardization cartels: can develop uniform standards for connectors, connections, adapters, etc.
1. Choi, Jay Pill, und Heiko Gerlach, Cartels and collusion: Economic theory and experimental economics. In The Oxford handbook of international antitrust economics, Hrsg. Roger D. Blair und D. Daniel Sokol, Vol. 2, 415– 441. Oxford 2015
2. Levenstein, Margaret C., und Valerie Y. Suslow, Cartels and collusion: Empirical evidence. In The Oxford handbook of international antitrust economics, Hrsg. Roger D. Blair und D. Daniel Sokol, Vol. 2, 442– 463. Oxford 2015._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
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