Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Höffe I 316
Philosophy of History/Kant/Höffe: In the first addendum "Von der Garantie des ewigen Friedens"(1) Kant expands his legal-moral and legal-sociological theory of peace by a social history of mankind that is determined only by nature, especially the discord of mankind, and yet by peace as the ultimate goal. This is where Kant's philosophy of history comes into play, the basic ideas of which he had already sketched out in the idea of a general history in cosmopolitan intention (1784):
According to Kant, the decisive factor for the development of culture generally lies in the antagonism called unsociable sociability (2). In this thought he leads the two competing anthropologies of his predecessors to a tension-filled unity.
Locke/Hobbes: Kant holds [both Hobbes' thesis of "selfish" desire and Locke's idea of an original drive for sociability] (...) for correct, but their respective absolutions for wrong.
Anthropology/Kant: An anthropology that does justice to the nature of humans therefore assumes an "unsociable sociability" in which the side of discord, ambition, lust for power and greed has a political value. For it ensures that the forces of humans, which otherwise atrophied, contribute to the development of a diverse culture.
War: As a trick of human nature, war even forces people to "step into" more or less "legal", i.e. legal and state relations (3).


1. Kant, Zum ewigen Frieden, 1795
2. Kant, Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht (1784), Idee, 7. Satz
3. Zum ewigen Frieden, Erster Zusatz


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
I. Kant
I Günter Schulte Kant Einführung (Campus) Frankfurt 1994
Externe Quellen. ZEIT-Artikel 11/02 (Ludger Heidbrink über Rawls)
Volker Gerhard "Die Frucht der Freiheit" Plädoyer für die Stammzellforschung ZEIT 27.11.03
Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-01-16
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